Git is a command line application, meaning it’s an application that we run in the terminal / command prompt.
The purpose of git is to keep track of our works. As a programmer, what we usually do at work is write code. With git, we can see what are the things that we added, edited, or removed from our project’s source code.
By default, git doesn’t just track everything we do to our source code. Therefore we need to tell git which changes we made to the source code that we want to keep track later, as we discuss later.
A repository (or repo) is basically a project containing source codes that is tracked by git.
There’s two main way to get a git repo. First, we can create our brand new project and tell git to keep track of it. Or, we can grab other people’s project that is already tracked by git somewhere.
To use the first method:
- We can create new project or we can use any existing project which hasn’t been tracked by git
- Navigate to project directory via terminal / command prompt,
To use the second method:
- Search for any git project, e.g from github
- And then run
git clone <repo_url>
- This will download the project into our local machine
Because, beside keeping track of changes in a repo, git also keep track of who did the changes.
Therefore, before we make any changes to the project, we have to introduce ourselves, well, at least we tell our name and email so git can identify us.
To do that we can run this command
git config --global user.name="Your Name"
There are at least 3 kinds of changes that we usually do to when we write code: creating, editing, or deleting files.
For illustration, let say we create some new files in our repo:
file_c.txt. After we created those files, however, git still doesn’t know a thing about them. If we want git to keep track of the new files, we have to tell git to ‘record’ it.
The basic flow is:
- We made changes (add, edit, or delete)
- We ‘pick’ which changes we want git to ‘record’, using
- Finally we tell git to
recordthe changes, using
git commit -m "<commit message>"command
Continuing the illustration, let say we only want to keep track of
file_a.txt, so the steps is:
git add file_a.txt
- Then run
git commit -m "add file_a to the repo"
A commit is set of changes that git record, and the commit message can be used to add remarks of what we do in a commit.
So what happens to
file_c.txt? Well, they’re fine and they’re still in our repo, but git still doesn’t know a thing about them.
One way to know the status of changes in our repo is to use the
git status command. It will output current changes that happen, whether we add new files, edit some existing files (that is already tracked by git), or delete some files.
If we run
git status, git will tell us that
file_c.txt is ‘untracked’, meaning git doesn’t know about it yet.
If we run
git add file_b.txt, and then run
git status again, now git will tell that
file_b.txt is ‘ready to be committed’, meaning we have ‘picked’ which changes that we want git to record.
Then, if we run
git commit -m "add file_b", and then run
git status again,
file_b.txt is now dissapear from the output, just like
file_a.txt previously. Because
git status only tells us about what are the current changes that happens in the repo, and since
file_b.txt has now tracked by git, it doesn’t appear in the output.
Right now, if we edit the content of
file_c.txt, and then run
git status git will always tells us it is ‘unstaged’, because there’s no information about the file whatsoever. However, if we edit
file_b.txt, and then run
git status, git will tell us that its ‘modified’, because git has a way to compare the file content with the content from latest commit.
The essentials of using git is to create a series of commits. For a reminder, a commit contain information of a change that we made.
To see commits in a repo, we run
git log command. It will display list of commits so far in the repo.
As we can see, each commit contain additional information, like the commit
hash or commit id, the commit message, the commit date, and the author. It also contain other stuff that we don’t need to focus right now. Later we can use this information to further manipulate our repo.
Tips: we can use
git log --oneline to display each commit in one line, so we can have a better view when we have a lot of commits.
Another purpose of git is to make collaboration with other people easier. So far, we only work alone, in our local machine, but we need to share our work with others. For that purpose, git let us ‘copy’ our repo to other location with the concept of
A remote can be thought as a place where the ‘copy’ of our local repo is kept. The idea is, it contains all commits from our local repo and can be located anywhere on the internet, so that other people can have access to it. Since other people can have access to it, it means they can do their work and create their commits and then we can collaborate.
We can setup our own server to host the remote repo, or we can just use third party service. One of the most popular service is github.com.
To ‘connect’ our repo to a remote, first we need to create a pointer to a remote.
git remote add origin <url>
<url> is where the remote repo is, and
origin is the name of the pointer that points to that
origin can be thought as ‘nickname’ for a remote, so later if we want to refer to that url we can refer to the ‘nickname’ instead.
We can have more than one remote repo, for example if we want to ‘connect’ our repo to another remote repo, we can run:
git remote add other_remote <url>
We can give nickname to the remote as we want, as long as it doesn’t clash with other remote name. The term
origin in the first example is conventional, indicating that it is the ‘main’ remote.
Now that we have a remote repo, we can ‘upload’ our changes to the remote repo. To do so, we use the
git push command, for example:
git push origin master
origin is the name of the remote, while
master is the name of the target branch we want to upload to.
After we ‘upload’ our changes to remote repo, other people who want to collaborate with us can download the latest changes by ‘downloading’ it from the repo.
To get latest changes from remote repo, we can use
git pull command, for example:
git pull origin master
We have learned previously that we can view history of commits using
git log. What if I told you that we can also ‘go back’ to any of those commits?
For illustration, we run
git log --oneline and these are the commits that we have:
1234d commit 4
This tells us that the latest commit
1234d with the message
commit 4. The latest commit when we run
git log is the current structure or content of our repo.
Let say we want to ‘undo’ the changes in
commit 4, and ‘go back’ to
commit 3, what we can do is run this command:
git reset --hard 1234c
This command will make
commit 3 the latest commit, and if we run
git log --oneline again, the
commit 4 is now dissapear:
1234c commit 3
Git has a pointer called
HEAD. The purpose of
HEAD is to indicate what is the current structure of our project. We can think of our repo as a series of commits and by default
HEAD is always pointing to the latest commit.
In the previous example, we can also think of what we have done as ‘moving’ the
HEAD to points to the previous commit, so that the previous commit became the ‘latest’ commit.
We can tell git to display where the
HEAD is using this command:
git log --oneline --decorate
--oneline will output one commit per line, and the
--decorate will display the
HEAD and some other information.
When we build an application, sometimes we need to add features, or maybe fixing bugs. When we make changes, we tend to also make mistakes. We don’t want the changes that we made to break the current application. We need a way to make changes and test the changes afterward in ‘isolation’, and then combine the changes back.
We can think of series of commits that we made so far as a ‘timeline’. What we need to do is to create separate ‘timeline’. This concept of separate path to make changes is called
branch in git. With
branch we can create multiple series of commits where each timeline has its own set of changes.
By default, when we create new project using
git init we only have one
branch with the name of
master. That is where we previosly create our commits. To make a new
branch, we use
git branch command, for example:
git branch develop
Now we have a new
Previously, we only have one branch,
master, and everytime we make changes, the commit will be added to the
master branch timeline. Now that we have more than one
branch, every changes will be added to whichever
branch is currently ‘active’. And right now the active branch is still the
master branch, because the previous command only create the
develop branch but not yet activating it.
If you still remember our discussion about
HEAD in the previous section, the
HEAD is pointing to the latest commit. But previously, since we only have one branch, the
HEAD is pointing to the latest commit on the
master branch. The active branch is determined by where the
HEAD points to. Because the
HEAD still points to
master, that means
master is the ‘active’ branch. We can move the
HEAD to points to another branch by using
git checkout command. For example if we want to activate
develop branch, we can use this command:
git checkout develop
From now on, if we create new commits, it will be added to the
develop branch and the
master branch will not know any changes we made in
For example, the
master branch have:
develop branch and add new files to our project and commit the changes:
Now, if we
master branch again using
git checkout master, we won’t see the newly added files. The files in the
master branch is still the following:
This is because
develop each have their own ‘version’ of project structure and contents.
When we finish the development in the
develop branch, after testing it and feeling confident about the changes, we can combine the two branch together. We do so by first checking out the target branch, which is the branch that we want to receive the changes, and then run
git merge <source_branch> command.
For example, if we want to merge all the changes from
develop branch back to our
master branch, first we checkout
git checkout master
And then we run:
git merge develop
Now the structure of our project become:
Git is smart enough to detect any duplicate files, therefore if two branches contains files with same name, if the content of those files is the same, git will think its safe to ignore it and leave the file as it is.
If the two branches contain files with same name but different content, git can detect the difference and automatically combine the content of the file properly if it can.
Now that we have more than one branch, we can also
push to or
pull from specified branch. For example
git pull origin develop will get any changes from
origin remote, from
develop branch in the remote. Or
git push origin develop to push our local changes to
develop branch in the remote.